Policy Analysis | September 2020

Trade in the SLC Region Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

Roger Moore

The COVID-19 pandemic upended global economic activity in the first quarter of 2020. Although the long-term impact of the pandemic remains unknown, the profound economic shocks experienced beginning in March, with widespread business closures and restrictions on movement, are expected to reverberate into 2021 and, possibly, beyond. In April, at the height of the pandemic, the World Trade Organization predicted that international trade could contract anywhere between 13 percent and 32 percent in 2020, as the flow of goods ground to a halt.1

By highlighting export and import data, as reported monthly by the U.S. Census Bureau, this SLC Policy Analysis depicts how the pandemic has impacted the U.S. economy. The data includes:

  1. Bi-monthly changes in imports and exports from July 2019 through January 2020;
  2. Bi-monthly changes in imports and exports from the beginning of 2020 until the most recent month for which data is available, currently July 2020; and
  3. Year-over-year changes in imports and exports during the most recent month for which data is available, currently July 2020.

Importantly, the monthly data provided by the Census Bureau only includes commodities. Exports and imports of services – such as travel and transportation, telecommunications, financial services and cultural activities, to name a few – are not included in the monthly data sets. Services account for a significant share of overall U.S. economic activity and have similarly been affected by the coronavirus-induced economic downturn.2

The Census Bureau data shows how states' trading patterns have been affected by the pandemic and during the past year, when international trade already was in a precarious position due to ongoing disputes between the United States and major trading partners. In fact, both exports and imports decreased nationally by 2.6 percent and 10.3 percent, respectively, from July 2019 through January 2020 (see Tables 1 and 2). Furthermore, during this period, nearly all SLC states experienced modest to substantial reductions in exports and imports. There was a rebound in exports during the first quarter of 2020, while imports continued declining in most states. Trading activity began contracting sharply during the period between March and May, with national exports and imports decreasing by 33.0 percent and 15.6 percent, respectively.

From the beginning of the year through July 2020, U.S. exports declined by 13.1 percent, while imports increased by 2.5 percent. There are indications that both exports and imports are recovering in many states since bottoming out in April and May, though additional monthly data is required to determine the extent and pace of the recovery.

Table 1
U.S. Exports: July 2019 - January 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State July Sep.
July / Sep. Change
Nov.
Sep. / Nov. Change
Jan.
Nov. / Jan. Change
July / Jan. Change
Alabama $1,606.1 $1,880.0 17.1% $1,914.3 1.8% $1,490.5 -22.1% -7.2%
Alaska $759.6 $876.2 15.3% $288.2 -67.1% $249.9 -13.3% -67.1%
Arizona $2,155.9 $2,210.7 2.5% $1,951.0 -11.7% $1,731.3 -11.3% -19.7%
Arkansas $544.0 $437.8 -19.5% $533.9 22.0% $592.2 10.9% 8.9%
California $13,539.6 $13,675.4 1.0% $14,774.8 8.0% $13,452.2 -9.0% -0.6%
Colorado $698.0 $659.9 -5.4% $676.2 2.5% $1,001.2 48.1% 43.4%
Connecticut $1,128.9 $1,393.3 23.4% $1,353.7 -2.8% $1,429.6 5.6% 26.6%
Delaware $382.1 $322.6 -15.6% $349.6 8.4% $277.2 -20.7% -27.4%
Florida $4,494.4 $4,401.7 -2.1% $4,869.5 10.6% $4,469.0 -8.2% -0.6%
Georgia $3,208.8 $3,627.2 13.0% $3,286.6 -9.4% $3,083.8 -6.2% -3.9%
Hawaii $48.3 $21.0 -56.5% $29.7 41.4% $28.9 -2.7% -40.2%
Idaho $277.6 $257.3 -7.3% $235.6 -8.4% $255.8 8.6% -7.8%
Illinois $4,739.8 $4,881.3 3.0% $4,805.9 -1.5% $4,640.8 -3.4% -2.1%
Indiana $3,250.2 $3,145.6 -3.2% $3,281.4 4.3% $3,052.3 -7.0% -6.1%
Iowa $1,044.0 $947.5 -9.2% $1,025.9 8.3% $1,041.8 1.6% -0.2%
Kansas $973.9 $1,050.8 7.9% $939.8 -10.6% $941.9 0.2% -3.3%
Kentucky $2,603.5 $2,948.9 13.3% $2,597.4 -11.9% $2,477.8 -4.6% -4.8%
Louisiana $4,793.0 $5,116.4 6.7% $5,944.4 16.2% $5,622.9 -5.4% 17.3%
Maine $185.6 $236.0 27.2% $231.2 -2.1% $230.5 -0.3% 24.2%
Maryland $1,103.9 $1,072.9 -2.8% $1,027.4 -4.2% $1,088.9 6.0% -1.4%
Massachusetts $1,906.8 $2,178.2 14.2% $2,239.8 2.8% $2,128.4 -5.0% 11.6%
Michigan $4,159.6 $4,586.4 10.3% $4,286.0 -6.5% $4,176.2 -2.6% 0.4%
Minnesota $1,841.6 $1,834.4 -0.4% $1,860.8 1.4% $1,843.3 -0.9% 0.1%
Mississippi $1,012.0 $950.1 -6.1% $907.5 -4.5% $990.1 9.1% -2.2%
Missouri $1,056.8 $1,062.8 0.6% $1,075.3 1.2% $920.8 -14.4% -12.9%
Montana $178.0 $160.7 -9.7% $105.3 -34.4% $113.5 7.7% -36.3%
Nebraska $597.9 $525.7 -12.1% $597.0 13.6% $571.2 -4.3% -4.5%
Nevada $667.6 $823.0 23.3% $896.2 8.9% $779.4 -13.0% 16.8%
New Hampshire $532.8 $469.7 -11.8% $486.3 3.5% $440.7 -9.4% -17.3%
New Jersey $2,932.4 $2,843.8 -3.0% $2,968.8 4.4% $3,016.7 1.6% 2.9%
New Mexico $349.1 $416.5 19.3% $650.1 56.1% $361.4 -44.4% 3.5%
New York $5,460.1 $6,417.7 17.5% $6,464.1 0.7% $5,600.6 -13.4% 2.6%
North Carolina $2,781.2 $2,759.8 -0.8% $2,710.7 -1.8% $2,443.0 -9.9% -12.2%
North Dakota $544.1 $582.2 7.0% $637.8 9.6% $582.6 -8.7% 7.1%
Ohio $4,229.5 $4,353.4 2.9% $4,175.4 -4.1% $4,090.1 -2.0% -3.3%
Oklahoma $547.9 $492.1 -10.2% $499.8 1.6% $463.8 -7.2% -15.3%
Oregon $1,786.5 $1,767.3 -1.1% $1,961.7 11.0% $1,920.0 -2.1% 7.5%
Pennsylvania $3,224.9 $3,552.1 10.1% $3,242.4 -8.7% $3,213.2 -0.9% -0.4%
Rhode Island $207.3 $228.9 10.4% $256.3 12.0% $255.2 -0.4% 23.1%
South Carolina $3,582.6 $3,968.7 10.8% $3,705.2 -6.6% $2,593.8 -30.0% -27.6%
South Dakota $116.9 $99.4 -14.9% $114.6 15.3% $118.6 3.6% 1.5%
Tennessee $2,536.7 $2,512.1 -1.0% $2,438.0 -2.9% $2,530.0 3.8% -0.3%
Texas $27,895.9 $26,793.9 -4.0% $27,594.5 3.0% $28,138.2 2.0% 0.9%
Utah $1,316.7 $1,427.5 8.4% $1,606.1 12.5% $1,304.1 -18.8% -1.0%
Vermont $237.2 $249.6 5.2% $269.2 7.9% $201.7 -25.1% -15.0%
Virginia $1,573.4 $1,370.2 -12.9% $1,389.5 1.4% $1,390.1 0.0% -11.6%
Washington $5,019.3 $4,138.1 -17.6% $4,904.7 18.5% $3,398.7 -30.7% -32.3%
West Virginia $487.2 $454.0 -6.8% $490.8 8.1% $403.3 -17.8% -17.2%
Wisconsin $1,725.6 $1,808.6 4.8% $1,819.8 0.6% $1,637.1 -10.0% -5.1%
Wyoming $95.2 $103.9 9.2% $134.9 29.8% $116.8 -13.4% 22.7%
U.S. Total $126,139.9 $128,093.3 1.5% $130,605.1 2.0% $122,901.3 -5.9% -2.6%
Table 2
U.S. Imports: July 2019 - January 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State July Sep.
July / Sep. Change
Nov.
Sep. / Nov. Change
Jan.
Nov. / Jan. Change
July / Jan. Change
Alabama $2,398.0 $2,379.9 -0.8% $2,129.2 -10.5% $2,373.1 11.5% -1.0%
Alaska $218.7 $159.4 -27.1% $165.7 3.9% $182.4 10.1% -16.6%
Arizona $2,096.7 $2,344.6 11.8% $2,359.0 0.6% $2,473.8 4.9% 18.0%
Arkansas $966.0 $806.2 -16.5% $736.6 -8.6% $731.2 -0.7% -24.3%
California $35,930.9 $34,351.7 -4.4% $33,936.8 -1.2% $31,991.5 -5.7% -11.0%
Colorado $1,246.6 $1,114.6 -10.6% $1,035.0 -7.1% $1,069.3 3.3% -14.2%
Connecticut $1,697.1 $1,777.6 4.7% $1,678.9 -5.6% $1,522.0 -9.3% -10.3%
Delaware $817.6 $685.5 -16.2% $937.2 36.7% $690.4 -26.3% -15.6%
Florida $6,950.3 $6,552.2 -5.7% $6,573.2 0.3% $7,551.7 14.9% 8.7%
Georgia $8,912.2 $8,423.1 -5.5% $7,880.9 -6.4% $8,235.7 4.5% -7.6%
Hawaii $286.0 $328.1 14.7% $282.5 -13.9% $169.2 -40.1% -40.8%
Idaho $416.5 $381.5 -8.4% $388.7 1.9% $414.4 6.6% -0.5%
Illinois $14,941.3 $15,157.3 1.4% $13,620.7 -10.1% $13,135.4 -3.6% -12.1%
Indiana $5,248.6 $5,243.4 -0.1% $5,538.1 5.6% $5,288.4 -4.5% 0.8%
Iowa $846.8 $845.5 -0.2% $738.4 -12.7% $732.4 -0.8% -13.5%
Kansas $1,103.2 $978.2 -11.3% $930.5 -4.9% $957.8 2.9% -13.2%
Kentucky $4,728.7 $4,617.4 -2.4% $4,609.3 -0.2% $4,279.6 -7.2% -9.5%
Louisiana $2,508.2 $2,200.7 -12.3% $2,137.0 -2.9% $2,298.1 7.5% -8.4%
Maine $461.9 $425.1 -8.0% $482.0 13.4% $526.0 9.1% 13.9%
Maryland $3,137.4 $2,814.3 -10.3% $2,811.1 -0.1% $2,435.0 -13.4% -22.4%
Massachusetts $3,500.2 $3,121.7 -10.8% $2,845.5 -8.8% $2,751.3 -3.3% -21.4%
Michigan $11,775.6 $11,585.7 -1.6% $11,535.2 -0.4% $10,146.8 -12.0% -13.8%
Minnesota $2,667.8 $2,296.8 -13.9% $2,324.7 1.2% $2,310.8 -0.6% -13.4%
Mississippi $1,768.2 $1,345.5 -23.9% $1,249.0 -7.2% $1,314.3 5.2% -25.7%
Missouri $1,936.3 $1,612.0 -16.7% $1,440.1 -10.7% $1,743.6 21.1% -9.9%
Montana $411.8 $425.9 3.4% $337.0 -20.9% $410.2 21.7% -0.4%
Nebraska $343.7 $402.4 17.1% $286.4 -28.8% $329.3 15.0% -4.2%
Nevada $993.5 $868.1 -12.6% $925.8 6.7% $934.3 0.9% -6.0%
New Hampshire $718.9 $728.6 1.3% $706.8 -3.0% $688.5 -2.6% -4.2%
New Jersey $11,490.1 $9,809.4 -14.6% $9,312.6 -5.1% $9,520.6 2.2% -17.1%
New Mexico $398.6 $364.1 -8.6% $363.4 -0.2% $396.1 9.0% -0.6%
New York $11,501.2 $10,756.7 -6.5% $10,506.3 -2.3% $9,825.7 -6.5% -14.6%
North Carolina $6,151.5 $5,263.0 -14.4% $4,471.9 -15.0% $5,258.7 17.6% -14.5%
North Dakota $325.0 $265.8 -18.2% $215.1 -19.0% $271.4 26.2% -16.5%
Ohio $5,984.1 $5,997.6 0.2% $5,611.7 -6.4% $5,311.4 -5.4% -11.2%
Oklahoma $1,057.4 $1,002.5 -5.2% $857.1 -14.5% $1,099.7 28.3% 4.0%
Oregon $1,617.1 $1,396.9 -13.6% $1,414.9 1.3% $1,327.9 -6.1% -17.9%
Pennsylvania $7,682.8 $6,868.7 -10.6% $7,258.8 5.7% $7,505.1 3.4% -2.3%
Rhode Island $1,215.2 $967.7 -20.4% $905.6 -6.4% $820.8 -9.4% -32.5%
South Carolina $3,668.0 $3,497.5 -4.6% $3,361.2 -3.9% $3,318.7 -1.3% -9.5%
South Dakota $106.6 $92.9 -12.8% $83.9 -9.7% $81.3 -3.1% -23.7%
Tennessee $7,307.7 $7,574.7 3.7% $7,381.0 -2.6% $6,820.7 -7.6% -6.7%
Texas $25,273.8 $23,403.6 -7.4% $22,240.5 -5.0% $22,807.3 2.5% -9.8%
Utah $1,351.6 $1,266.6 -6.3% $1,272.8 0.5% $1,227.9 -3.5% -9.1%
Vermont $341.1 $276.3 -19.0% $248.7 -10.0% $280.8 12.9% -17.7%
Virginia $2,703.9 $2,617.5 -3.2% $2,514.1 -3.9% $2,464.8 -2.0% -8.8%
Washington $4,611.3 $4,721.4 2.4% $4,429.8 -6.2% $4,040.7 -8.8% -12.4%
West Virginia $320.0 $306.4 -4.2% $269.0 -12.2% $260.6 -3.1% -18.6%
Wisconsin $2,451.5 $2,544.2 3.8% $2,224.6 -12.6% $2,141.4 -3.7% -12.7%
Wyoming $119.5 $133.1 11.4% $83.4 -37.4% $101.9 22.2% -14.7%
U.S. Total $214,706.5 $203,099.5 -5.4% $195,647.6 -3.7% $192,570.4 -1.6% -10.3%

Exports

In the first quarter of 2020, from January through March, exports increased in 11 of the SLC states, including Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia. The increases ranged from 3.0 percent in Tennessee, to 41.4 percent in South Carolina. In nine of the 11 states that had an increase in exports during the first quarter of 2020, the growth rate was higher than 10 percent. These figures indicate strong economic activity across much, if not all, of the South at the beginning of 2020 (see Table 3).

However, the impact of COVID-19, and the subsequent contraction in business activity, led to sharp reductions across the region. From March through May, exports decreased in every SLC state, from 18.7 percent in Oklahoma, to 66.3 percent in South Carolina. Nine of the 15 states experienced decreases greater than the national average of 33.0 percent from March through May. The sharp contractions mostly ceased the following two months. From May through July, exports expanded in every SLC state, with the exception of Arkansas.  The rebound was substantial in several states, with Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas experiencing growth rates above 30 percent during the three-month period. By comparison, the national average was 24.4 percent during this period.

Despite the turnaround between March and July, exports declined in 13 of the 15 states since the beginning of the year. Exports in Missouri and South Carolina, the two outliers, grew 12.0 percent and 0.3 percent, respectively, from the beginning of the year through July 2020. Meanwhile, in July 2020, exports in all 15 SLC states declined significantly when compared to the same period in 2019. Year-over-year exports fell the sharpest in Arkansas, with a 35.8 percent reduction, followed by West Virginia, at 31.9 percent.. Missouri and Tennessee experienced the smallest year-over-year decreases, at 2.5 percent and 9.3 percent, respectively. Compared to the same period in 2019, nine SLC states were among the top 20 nationally in July 2020 with the largest reduction in exports (see Table 4).

Table 3
U.S. Exports: January 2020 - July 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State January March
Jan. / Mar. Change
May
Mar. / May Change
July
May / July Change
Jan. / July Change
Alabama $1,490.5 $1,937.7 30.0% $869.7 -55.1% $1,417.9 63.0% -4.9%
Alaska $249.9 $390.3 56.2% $281.0 -28.0% $412.2 46.7% 65.0%
Arizona $1,731.3 $2,043.5 18.0% $1,482.3 -27.5% $1,572.0 6.1% -9.2%
Arkansas $592.2 $535.9 -9.5% $377.0 -29.6% $349.2 -7.4% -41.0%
California $13,452.2 $13,565.8 0.8% $10,488.4 -22.7% $13,487.3 28.6% 0.3%
Colorado $1,001.2 $663.2 -33.8% $476.8 -28.1% $658.0 38.0% -34.3%
Connecticut $1,429.6 $1,437.0 0.5% $1,007.8 -29.9% $1,034.5 2.7% -27.6%
Delaware $277.2 $372.5 34.4% $253.2 -32.0% $294.6 16.3% 6.3%
Florida $4,469.0 $4,288.2 -4.0% $3,029.7 -29.3% $3,407.1 12.5% -23.8%
Georgia $3,083.8 $3,849.8 24.8% $2,834.1 -26.4% $2,881.4 1.7% -6.6%
Hawaii $28.9 $20.9 -27.4% $31.4 50.0% $23.1 -26.6% -20.1%
Idaho $255.8 $298.5 16.7% $253.8 -15.0% $298.4 17.6% 16.6%
Illinois $4,640.8 $4,885.4 5.3% $3,806.6 -22.1% $4,168.2 9.5% -10.2%
Indiana $3,052.3 $3,342.1 9.5% $2,116.1 -36.7% $2,912.2 37.6% -4.6%
Iowa $1,041.8 $1,243.6 19.4% $964.3 -22.5% $984.0 2.0% -5.6%
Kansas $941.9 $990.4 5.2% $664.2 -32.9% $777.0 17.0% -17.5%
Kentucky $2,477.8 $2,928.6 18.2% $1,381.7 -52.8% $1,830.5 32.5% -26.1%
Louisiana $5,622.9 $5,273.9 -6.2% $3,691.2 -30.0% $4,190.0 13.5% -25.5%
Maine $230.5 $197.9 -14.2% $131.1 -33.7% $168.6 28.6% -26.8%
Maryland $1,088.9 $1,150.9 5.7% $878.8 -23.6% $906.9 3.2% -16.7%
Massachusetts $2,128.4 $2,186.3 2.7% $1,710.9 -21.7% $1,931.2 12.9% -9.3%
Michigan $4,176.2 $4,308.0 3.2% $1,838.6 -57.3% $3,485.3 89.6% -16.5%
Minnesota $1,843.3 $1,952.7 5.9% $1,505.6 -22.9% $1,589.1 5.5% -13.8%
Mississippi $990.1 $1,101.2 11.2% $664.3 -39.7% $888.7 33.8% -10.2%
Missouri $920.8 $1,265.5 37.4% $782.8 -38.1% $1,030.9 31.7% 12.0%
Montana $113.5 $109.2 -3.7% $101.3 -7.2% $105.3 3.9% -7.2%
Nebraska $571.2 $654.8 14.6% $578.8 -11.6% $580.6 0.3% 1.7%
Nevada $779.4 $916.4 17.6% $839.5 -8.4% $1,009.7 20.3% 29.5%
New Hampshire $440.7 $479.7 8.9% $416.6 -13.2% $425.1 2.0% -3.5%
New Jersey $3,016.7 $3,366.5 11.6% $2,526.1 -25.0% $2,921.6 15.7% -3.2%
New Mexico $361.4 $351.8 -2.7% $242.3 -31.1% $334.4 38.0% -7.5%
New York $5,600.6 $4,992.2 -10.9% $3,792.7 -24.0% $4,543.5 19.8% -18.9%
North Carolina $2,443.0 $2,844.6 16.4% $1,896.8 -33.3% $2,099.2 10.7% -14.1%
North Dakota $582.6 $595.3 2.2% $280.9 -52.8% $299.0 6.5% -48.7%
Ohio $4,090.1 $4,487.0 9.7% $2,545.6 -43.3% $3,308.3 30.0% -19.1%
Oklahoma $463.8 $510.3 10.0% $414.8 -18.7% $431.4 4.0% -7.0%
Oregon $1,920.0 $2,085.2 8.6% $1,968.5 -5.6% $2,141.0 8.8% 11.5%
Pennsylvania $3,213.2 $3,486.0 8.5% $2,624.1 -24.7% $2,952.2 12.5% -8.1%
Rhode Island $255.2 $215.6 -15.5% $155.5 -27.9% $168.5 8.4% -34.0%
South Carolina $2,593.8 $3,668.1 41.4% $1,234.7 -66.3% $2,602.1 110.7% 0.3%
South Dakota $118.6 $143.6 21.0% $82.1 -42.8% $103.3 25.8% -13.0%
Tennessee $2,530.0 $2,606.1 3.0% $1,679.2 -35.6% $2,301.5 37.1% -9.0%
Texas $28,138.2 $26,945.2 -4.2% $15,802.1 -41.4% $22,371.8 41.6% -20.5%
Utah $1,304.1 $1,432.7 9.9% $1,204.1 -16.0% $1,178.1 -2.2% -9.7%
Vermont $201.7 $201.4 -0.2% $172.1 -14.5% $181.1 5.2% -10.2%
Virginia $1,390.1 $1,505.4 8.3% $1,169.1 -22.3% $1,222.1 4.5% -12.1%
Washington $3,398.7 $3,711.2 9.2% $2,781.6 -25.0% $2,752.8 -1.0% -19.0%
West Virginia $403.3 $498.8 23.7% $303.7 -39.1% $331.8 9.3% -17.7%
Wisconsin $1,637.1 $2,041.3 24.7% $1,408.0 -31.0% $1,672.5 18.8% 2.2%
Wyoming $116.8 $114.0 -2.4% $98.2 -13.9% $87.2 -11.3% -25.4%
U.S. Total $122,901.3 $128,191.9 4.3% $85,840.1 -33.0% $106,822.6 24.4% -13.1%
Table 4
U.S. Exports: July 2019 - July 2020
Year-over-Year (in millions $ USD)
State July 2019 July 2020
Percent Change
July 2019 / July 2020
Alabama $1,606.1 $1,417.9 -11.7%
Alaska $759.6 $412.2 -45.7%
Arizona $2,155.9 $1,572.0 -27.1%
Arkansas $544.0 $349.2 -35.8%
California $13,539.6 $13,487.3 -0.4%
Colorado $698.0 $658.0 -5.7%
Connecticut $1,128.9 $1,034.5 -8.4%
Delaware $382.1 $294.6 -22.9%
Florida $4,494.4 $3,407.1 -24.2%
Georgia $3,208.8 $2,881.4 -10.2%
Hawaii $48.3 $23.1 -52.2%
Idaho $277.6 $298.4 7.5%
Illinois $4,739.8 $4,168.2 -12.1%
Indiana $3,250.2 $2,912.2 -10.4%
Iowa $1,044.0 $984.0 -5.7%
Kansas $973.9 $777.0 -20.2%
Kentucky $2,603.5 $1,830.5 -29.7%
Louisiana $4,793.0 $4,190.0 -12.6%
Maine $185.6 $168.6 -9.1%
Maryland $1,103.9 $906.9 -17.8%
Massachusetts $1,906.8 $1,931.2 1.3%
Michigan $4,159.6 $3,485.3 -16.2%
Minnesota $1,841.6 $1,589.1 -13.7%
Mississippi $1,012.0 $888.7 -12.2%
Missouri $1,056.8 $1,030.9 -2.5%
Montana $178.0 $105.3 -40.8%
Nebraska $597.9 $580.6 -2.9%
Nevada $667.6 $1,009.7 51.2%
New Hampshire $532.8 $425.1 -20.2%
New Jersey $2,932.4 $2,921.6 -0.4%
New Mexico $349.1 $334.4 -4.2%
New York $5,460.1 $4,543.5 -16.8%
North Carolina $2,781.2 $2,099.2 -24.5%
North Dakota $544.1 $299.0 -45.0%
Ohio $4,229.5 $3,308.3 -21.8%
Oklahoma $547.9 $431.4 -21.3%
Oregon $1,786.5 $2,141.0 19.8%
Pennsylvania $3,224.9 $2,952.2 -8.5%
Rhode Island $207.3 $168.5 -18.7%
South Carolina $3,582.6 $2,602.1 -27.4%
South Dakota $116.9 $103.3 -11.6%
Tennessee $2,536.7 $2,301.5 -9.3%
Texas $27,895.9 $22,371.8 -19.8%
Utah $1,316.7 $1,178.1 -10.5%
Vermont $237.2 $181.1 -23.7%
Virginia $1,573.4 $1,222.1 -22.3%
Washington $5,019.3 $2,752.8 -45.2%
West Virginia $487.2 $331.8 -31.9%
Wisconsin $1,725.6 $1,672.5 -3.1%
Wyoming $95.2 $87.2 -8.4%
U.S. Total $126,139.9 $106,822.6 -15.3%

Imports

Unlike exports, imports decreased across much of the region during the first quarter of 2020. From January through March, imports declined in nine of the 15 SLC states. The decreases ranged from 6.3 percent in Mississippi, to 23.6 percent in Oklahoma. Meanwhile, the six states where imports grew during this period included Georgia, Kentucky North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia. By comparison, imports decreased nationally by 0.9 percent (see Table 5).

Imports declined significantly from March through May just as they did for exports. During the three-month period, imports fell in every SLC state, in most cases by significant margins. Eight of the states experienced declines by 20 percent or more, while six had declines between 10 percent and 20 percent. Only Virginia experienced a reduction less than 10 percent during this period. However, from May through July, imports expanded across the region, from 6.3 percent in Louisiana, to 38.5 percent in Mississippi. Eight of the states surpassed the national average growth of 22.5 percent during this period, including Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia.

Since the beginning of the year, imports increased by 2.5 percent nationally. However, most of the SLC region has not experienced as much success. Imports in 12 states declined since the beginning of 2020 through July. The outliers were Kentucky, Mississippi and South Carolina, where imports grew by 1.8 percent, 5.2 percent and 3.0 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, all 15 SLC states experienced steep declines in year-over-year imports in July 2020. West Virginia was the most affected state in the region, with imports dropping by 32.5 percent in July 2020, when compared to the same period in 2019, followed by North Carolina at 28.5 percent. Compared to the same period in 2019, eight SLC states were among the top 20 nationally in July 2020 with the largest reduction in imports (see Table 6).

Table 5
U.S. Imports: January 2020 - July 2020 (in millions $ USD)
State January March
Jan. / Mar. Change
May
Mar. / May Change
July
May / July Change
Jan. / July Change
Alabama $2,373.1 $2,200.5 -7.3% $1,594.9 -27.5% $1,963.0 23.1% -17.3%
Alaska $182.4 $209.9 15.1% $167.3 -20.3% $247.6 48.0% 35.7%
Arizona $2,473.8 $2,202.9 -11.0% $2,126.4 -3.5% $1,836.3 -13.6% -25.8%
Arkansas $731.2 $682.4 -6.7% $590.1 -13.5% $696.2 18.0% -4.8%
California $31,991.5 $28,813.0 -9.9% $27,191.5 -5.6% $36,478.4 34.2% 14.0%
Colorado $1,069.3 $1,011.6 -5.4% $720.8 -28.8% $1,140.9 58.3% 6.7%
Connecticut $1,522.0 $1,945.4 27.8% $1,378.6 -29.1% $1,300.4 -5.7% -14.6%
Delaware $690.4 $842.7 22.1% $508.4 -39.7% $854.6 68.1% 23.8%
Florida $7,551.7 $6,685.4 -11.5% $5,069.6 -24.2% $6,213.1 22.6% -17.7%
Georgia $8,235.7 $8,405.7 2.1% $6,858.0 -18.4% $7,732.7 12.8% -6.1%
Hawaii $169.2 $239.8 41.7% $83.9 -65.0% $111.8 33.2% -33.9%
Idaho $414.4 $385.6 -6.9% $594.4 54.1% $498.3 -16.2% 20.2%
Illinois $13,135.4 $13,003.9 -1.0% $10,877.8 -16.3% $12,636.1 16.2% -3.8%
Indiana $5,288.4 $5,639.6 6.6% $5,268.9 -6.6% $5,324.4 1.1% 0.7%
Iowa $732.4 $829.5 13.3% $654.8 -21.1% $763.9 16.7% 4.3%
Kansas $957.8 $962.5 0.5% $816.1 -15.2% $886.1 8.6% -7.5%
Kentucky $4,279.6 $4,727.0 10.5% $3,930.0 -16.9% $4,356.7 10.9% 1.8%
Louisiana $2,298.1 $2,013.4 -12.4% $1,702.6 -15.4% $1,810.4 6.3% -21.2%
Maine $526.0 $355.6 -32.4% $328.5 -7.6% $406.2 23.7% -22.8%
Maryland $2,435.0 $3,038.9 24.8% $1,784.1 -41.3% $2,345.5 31.5% -3.7%
Massachusetts $2,751.3 $2,812.9 2.2% $3,013.8 7.1% $3,151.6 4.6% 14.5%
Michigan $10,146.8 $10,892.9 7.4% $3,565.1 -67.3% $10,343.5 190.1% 1.9%
Minnesota $2,310.8 $2,098.4 -9.2% $1,827.2 -12.9% $2,586.0 41.5% 11.9%
Mississippi $1,314.3 $1,231.4 -6.3% $998.4 -18.9% $1,382.6 38.5% 5.2%
Missouri $1,743.6 $1,478.8 -15.2% $1,290.0 -12.8% $1,730.4 34.1% -0.8%
Montana $410.2 $334.1 -18.6% $222.7 -33.3% $325.6 46.2% -20.6%
Nebraska $329.3 $304.9 -7.4% $276.9 -9.2% $320.3 15.7% -2.7%
Nevada $934.3 $1,312.1 40.4% $999.9 -23.8% $1,067.7 6.8% 14.3%
New Hampshire $688.5 $705.8 2.5% $445.5 -36.9% $536.8 20.5% -22.0%
New Jersey $9,520.6 $9,496.7 -0.3% $7,272.5 -23.4% $9,502.1 30.7% -0.2%
New Mexico $396.1 $347.1 -12.4% $286.3 -17.5% $385.5 34.6% -2.7%
New York $9,825.7 $11,185.6 13.8% $19,194.2 71.6% $14,998.7 -21.9% 52.6%
North Carolina $5,258.7 $5,595.7 6.4% $4,099.5 -26.7% $4,396.2 7.2% -16.4%
North Dakota $271.4 $305.1 12.4% $218.0 -28.6% $202.5 -7.1% -25.4%
Ohio $5,311.4 $5,356.7 0.9% $4,315.0 -19.4% $6,630.5 53.7% 24.8%
Oklahoma $1,099.7 $839.6 -23.6% $618.9 -26.3% $843.9 36.3% -23.3%
Oregon $1,327.9 $1,750.4 31.8% $1,272.9 -27.3% $1,497.6 17.7% 12.8%
Pennsylvania $7,505.1 $7,453.0 -0.7% $6,324.0 -15.1% $6,755.5 6.8% -10.0%
Rhode Island $820.8 $933.3 13.7% $316.0 -66.1% $700.7 121.7% -14.6%
South Carolina $3,318.7 $3,387.0 2.1% $2,538.6 -25.0% $3,419.1 34.7% 3.0%
South Dakota $81.3 $96.0 18.1% $84.0 -12.4% $109.7 30.5% 35.0%
Tennessee $6,820.7 $7,426.8 8.9% $5,334.4 -28.2% $6,525.6 22.3% -4.3%
Texas $22,807.3 $21,302.9 -6.6% $15,834.4 -25.7% $21,453.5 35.5% -5.9%
Utah $1,227.9 $1,146.1 -6.7% $973.6 -15.0% $1,375.7 41.3% 12.0%
Vermont $280.8 $221.0 -21.3% $175.5 -20.6% $225.1 28.3% -19.8%
Virginia $2,464.8 $2,202.6 -10.6% $1,993.1 -9.5% $2,448.6 22.9% -0.7%
Washington $4,040.7 $3,799.8 -6.0% $3,124.7 -17.8% $4,231.4 35.4% 4.7%
West Virginia $260.6 $312.5 19.9% $195.5 -37.4% $215.9 10.4% -17.2%
Wisconsin $2,141.4 $2,218.8 3.6% $1,995.4 -10.1% $2,312.6 15.9% 8.0%
Wyoming $101.9 $98.7 -3.2% $56.8 -42.4% $91.9 61.6% -9.8%
U.S. Total $192,570.4 $190,842.0 -0.9% $161,109.9 -15.6% $197,369.4 22.5% 2.5%
Table 6
U.S. Imports: July 2019 - July 2020
Year-over-Year (in millions $ USD)
State July 2019 July 2020
Percent Change
July 2019 / July 2020
Alabama $2,398.0 $1,963.0 -18.1%
Alaska $218.7 $247.6 13.2%
Arizona $2,096.7 $1,836.3 -12.4%
Arkansas $966.0 $696.2 -27.9%
California $35,930.9 $36,478.4 1.5%
Colorado $1,246.6 $1,140.9 -8.5%
Connecticut $1,697.1 $1,300.4 -23.4%
Delaware $817.6 $854.6 4.5%
Florida $6,950.3 $6,213.1 -10.6%
Georgia $8,912.2 $7,732.7 -13.2%
Hawaii $286.0 $111.8 -60.9%
Idaho $416.5 $498.3 19.6%
Illinois $14,941.3 $12,636.1 -15.4%
Indiana $5,248.6 $5,324.4 1.4%
Iowa $846.8 $763.9 -9.8%
Kansas $1,103.2 $886.1 -19.7%
Kentucky $4,728.7 $4,356.7 -7.9%
Louisiana $2,508.2 $1,810.4 -27.8%
Maine $461.9 $406.2 -12.0%
Maryland $3,137.4 $2,345.5 -25.2%
Massachusetts $3,500.2 $3,151.6 -10.0%
Michigan $11,775.6 $10,343.5 -12.2%
Minnesota $2,667.8 $2,586.0 -3.1%
Mississippi $1,768.2 $1,382.6 -21.8%
Missouri $1,936.3 $1,730.4 -10.6%
Montana $411.8 $325.6 -20.9%
Nebraska $343.7 $320.3 -6.8%
Nevada $993.5 $1,067.7 7.5%
New Hampshire $718.9 $536.8 -25.3%
New Jersey $11,490.1 $9,502.1 -17.3%
New Mexico $398.6 $385.5 -3.3%
New York $11,501.2 $14,998.7 30.4%
North Carolina $6,151.5 $4,396.2 -28.5%
North Dakota $325.0 $202.5 -37.7%
Ohio $5,984.1 $6,630.5 10.8%
Oklahoma $1,057.4 $843.9 -20.2%
Oregon $1,617.1 $1,497.6 -7.4%
Pennsylvania $7,682.8 $6,755.5 -12.1%
Rhode Island $1,215.2 $700.7 -42.3%
South Carolina $3,668.0 $3,419.1 -6.8%
South Dakota $106.6 $109.7 2.9%
Tennessee $7,307.7 $6,525.6 -10.7%
Texas $25,273.8 $21,453.5 -15.1%
Utah $1,351.6 $1,375.7 1.8%
Vermont $341.1 $225.1 -34.0%
Virginia $2,703.9 $2,448.6 -9.4%
Washington $4,611.3 $4,231.4 -8.2%
West Virginia $320.0 $215.9 -32.5%
Wisconsin $2,451.5 $2,312.6 -5.7%
Wyoming $119.5 $91.9 -23.1%
U.S. Total $214,706.5 $197,369.4 -8.1%
References

1 "Trade Set to Plunge as COVID-19 Pandemic Upends Global Economic, World Trade Organization, accessed July 14, 2020, https://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres20_e/pr855_e.htm.

2 "U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services," U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, accessed July 14, 2020, https://www.bea.gov/news/2020/us-international-trade-goods-and-services-may-2020.