Policy Analysis | June 2020

Federal Assistance To Farms Amid The COVID-19 Pandemic

Nick Bowman

As of June 29, 2020, the coronavirus has infected 8 million and contributed to 440,000 deaths worldwide; including 2.2 million cases and nearly 120,000 deaths in the United States.1 For more on the virus, see the SLC policy analyses, Unemployment in the SLC Region Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic, Spread of COVID-19 within Regions of the United States, Coronavirus Impacts on State Legislatures and Elections and Coronavirus Response at State Unemployment Agencies.

The agriculture sector has been hit particularly hard by the coronavirus and accompanying quarantine policies. Many of the largest buyers of agricultural products—including restaurants, schools and hotels—have closed or operated at limited capacity for months due to the pandemic. With a supply chain built around these buyers, many farmers have been forced to destroy crops, dairy and dairy-related products, and livestock. Dairy farmers have been dumping millions of gallons of milk; chicken processors are destroying hundreds of thousands of eggs; and vegetable farmers are plowing acres of fields.2 Meanwhile, coronavirus outbreaks at meatpacking plants have created a backlog of pigs to be slaughtered, forcing some farmers to euthanize tens of thousands of their pigs.3

On March 27, 2020, the U.S. Congress passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act to stimulate the economy through $2 trillion in forgivable loans and direct cash payments. Recognizing the importance of agriculture, the CARES Act provides agriculture sector assistance through the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program (CFAP) and other measures. Through CFAP, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will administer up to $19 billion in support through two major components:

  1. $16 billion in direct financial assistance to farmers and ranchers, based on actual losses caused by the coronavirus; and
  2. $3 billion to purchase fresh produce, dairy and meat from farmers and ranchers affected by the closure of restaurants, hotels and other food service entities. These goods will be distributed to food banks, faith-based organizations and other non-profit organizations feeding Americans in need.4

As of June 29, 2020, USDA has processed $4,857,126,555 in CFAP payments to 319,544 producers across the nation. Table 1 displays the payments made, separated by the type of farm or ranch.5, This data will be updated weekly. The subsequent tables (tables 2 through 5) separate this data by region. States in the South have fared well thus far, receiving $1,241,667,688 in payments to 157,395 producers, the second highest CFAP payment amount of the four regions of The Council of State Governments. In the South, the most awarded sector was livestock farms, with $864,837,413 in CFAP payments. Non-specialty farms were the second most awarded sector, with $242,548,163 in payments. Dairy farms and specialty farms received $89,942,790 and $44,339,323, respectively.

To date, the Midwest region has received the most compensation, with total CFAP payments of $2,632,339,720. The West and East have received $701,813,880 and $281,305,266, respectively.


Footnotes:

Non-specialty commodities include malting barley, canola, corn, upland cotton, millet, oats, soybeans, sorghum, sunflowers, durum wheat, hard red spring wheat, and wool. Livestock includes cattle, hogs, and sheep (lambs and yearlings only). Specialty crops include fruits, vegetables, nuts, and others (beans, mushrooms).


Table 1. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program Payments* (As of June 29, 2020)
Non-Specialty Specialty Livestock Dairy
State Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps.
Alabama $12,796,136 1,003 $481,273 14 $39,688,939 8,127 $649,219 22
Alaska $0 0 $0 1 $30,862 6 $24,860 1
American Samoa $0 0 $0 6 $0 0 $0 0
Arizona $2,552,120 156 $4,751,920 28 $5,835,861 330 $6,867,674 34
Arkansas $15,978,142 2,286 $1,181,550 37 $55,646,462 9,229 $717,418 36
California $3,326,601 454 $43,806,509 1,419 $44,546,039 2,159 $140,655,620 759
Colorado $7,237,465 1,192 $45,918 3 $39,187,466 2,628 $15,228,549 78
Connecticut $283,239 60 $0 0 $293,674 70 $4,515,144 67
Delaware $1,194,263 133 $0 0 $49,182 29 $462,459 8
Florida $1,921,095 206 $30,335,808 194 $23,433,665 2,323 $6,692,505 35
Georgia $26,307,376 1,900 $3,673,743 193 $26,821,916 5,165 $7,767,055 97
Guam $0 0 $0 2 $0 0 $0 0
Hawaii $0 0 $575,161 92 $2,588,943 156 $0 1
Idaho $1,946,629 487 $2,482,542 75 $41,818,210 2,501 $45,851,317 257
Illinois $148,844,044 22,728 $64,954 9 $67,884,421 5,996 $13,725,459 343
Indiana $68,885,626 8,597 $306,171 11 $40,807,382 3,812 $14,798,030 271
Iowa $230,807,450 29,264 $6,234 2 $250,985,467 14,550 $31,943,750 704
Kansas $55,915,190 10,950 $47,869 18 $180,824,768 14,648 $6,808,147 156
Kentucky $21,733,806 2,817 $90,783 19 $75,833,235 15,184 $8,166,328 237
Louisiana $6,302,082 567 $614,656 19 $13,266,068 3,087 $1,185,423 57
Maine $410,504 103 $22,515 6 $663,233 203 $6,659,344 164
Maryland $4,333,419 535 $991 3 $1,669,276 413 $5,964,003 154
Massachusetts $257,414 115 $3,328 3 $731,190 207 $2,248,868 77
Michigan $18,616,415 3,181 $1,509,208 43 $23,022,555 2,056 $54,849,737 692
Minnesota $125,091,027 16,329 $248,522 9 $126,697,314 7,846 $57,719,913 1,694
Mississippi $28,860,203 1,304 $14,340 7 $30,360,437 6,816 $1,365,356 46
Missouri $48,568,639 8,363 $80,710 23 $127,839,011 18,219 $5,697,310 313
Montana $3,946,784 1,655 $633,461 4 $67,969,316 4,592 $1,677,206 28
Nebraska $136,768,647 15,464 $2,366 1 $201,941,391 11,791 $6,626,502 108
Nevada $138,983 20 $0 0 $10,420,897 470 $2,868,047 13
New Hampshire $168,896 46 $0 0 $209,478 81 $2,568,113 65
New Jersey $604,503 90 $27,222 6 $192,065 56 $869,216 28
New Mexico $846,864 102 $5,335,364 106 $25,466,598 1,535 $16,015,446 64
New York $10,688,902 2,025 $1,434,479 30 $11,091,907 2,437 $111,269,527 2,082
North Carolina $15,231,009 1,625 $737,345 30 $19,536,097 2,874 $7,970,582 102
North Dakota $40,297,230 5,727 $154,798 13 $54,174,594 4,284 $2,894,698 29
Northern Mariana Islands $0 0 $0 0 $0 5 $0 0
Ohio $31,427,812 5,701 $269,504 4 $30,485,456 3,407 $29,333,742 674
Oklahoma $7,493,733 1,230 $1,438,933 248 $174,868,279 18,324 $2,020,027 70
Oregon $322,671 122 $1,709,252 81 $25,262,856 1,554 $13,531,340 126
Pennsylvania $10,842,082 2,667 $2,114,615 30 $16,229,873 2,829 $59,777,557 1,799
Puerto Rico $5,158 1 $212,814 41 $310,302 40 $5,162,720 200
Rhode Island $0 4 $0 0 $3,999 8 $9,079 4
South Carolina $7,795,765 692 $350,700 17 $6,446,296 1,399 $1,827,932 33
South Dakota $65,366,122 8,378 $410 9 $178,761,523 9,889 $9,297,021 115
Tennessee $18,526,052 1,877 $40,410 7 $44,374,904 9,834 $5,670,959 135
Texas $23,035,287 4,436 $5,168,723 171 $185,108,107 17,196 $26,721,998 207
Utah $1,176,305 312 $997,520 14 $21,757,091 1,501 $11,415,162 120
Vermont $581,932 158 $0 1 $996,305 314 $16,140,732 315
Virginia $7,472,997 1,281 $124,699 16 $32,899,872 4,837 $12,904,795 237
Virgin Islands of The U.S. $0 0 $90 6 $31,657 21 $0 0
Washington $1,264,609 241 $1,326,938 34 $12,809,493 985 $31,788,932 234
West Virginia $525,841 255 $5,649 5 $8,714,125 2,279 $585,882 33
Wisconsin $49,803,063 9,221 $326,398 10 $49,643,093 8,199 $224,355,698 4,501
Wyoming $841,115 241 $0 0 $32,046,127 1,815 $885,236 8
Total $1,267,341,246 176,301 $112,756,394 3,120 $2,432,277,277 238,316 $1,044,751,637 17,633

* Payments to individual states may not add up to the national total due to rounding.

Source: “Coronavirus Food Assistance Program,” June 29, 2020, U.S. Department Of Agriculture, https://www.farmers.gov/sites/default/files/documents/CFAP-PaymentReportData-06292020.pdf.

Table 2. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program Payments* to Southern States (As of June 29, 2020)
Non-specialty Specialty Livestock Dairy Total
State Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps.
Alabama $12,796,136 1,003 $481,273 14 $39,688,939 8,127 $649,219 22 $53,615,568 9,166
Arkansas $15,978,142 2,286 $1,181,550 37 $55,646,462 9,229 $717,418 36 $73,523,572 11,588
Florida $1,921,095 206 $30,335,808 194 $23,433,665 2,323 $6,692,505 35 $62,383,073 2,758
Georgia $26,307,376 1,900 $3,673,743 193 $26,821,916 5,165 $7,767,055 97 $64,570,089 7,355
Kentucky $21,733,806 2,817 $90,783 19 $75,833,235 15,184 $8,166,328 237 $105,824,151 18,257
Louisiana $6,302,082 567 $614,656 19 $13,266,068 3,087 $1,185,423 57 $21,368,230 3,730
Mississippi $28,860,203 1,304 $14,340 7 $30,360,437 6,816 $1,365,356 46 $60,600,336 8,173
Missouri $48,568,639 8,363 $80,710 23 $127,839,011 18,219 $5,697,310 313 $182,185,670 26,918
North Carolina $15,231,009 1,625 $737,345 30 $19,536,097 2,874 $7,970,582 102 $43,475,034 4,631
Oklahoma $7,493,733 1,230 $1,438,933 248 $174,868,279 18,324 $2,020,027 70 $185,820,972 19,872
South Carolina $7,795,765 692 $350,700 17 $6,446,296 1,399 $1,827,932 33 $16,420,693 2,141
Tennessee $18,526,052 1,877 $40,410 7 $44,374,904 9,834 $5,670,959 135 $68,612,325 11,853
Texas $23,035,287 4,436 $5,168,723 171 $185,108,107 17,196 $26,721,998 207 $240,034,116 22,010
Virginia $7,472,997 1,281 $124,699 16 $32,899,872 4,837 $12,904,795 237 $53,402,364 6,371
West Virginia $525,841 255 $5,649 5 $8,714,125 2,279 $585,882 33 $9,831,496 2,572
Total $242,548,163 29,842 $44,339,323 1,000 $864,837,413 124,893 $89,942,790 1,660 $1,241,667,688 157,395

* Payments to individual states may not add up to the regional total due to rounding. A single application from one farm or ranch may be counted in multiple categories, affecting totals.


Table 3. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program Payments* to Eastern States (As of June 29, 2020)
Non-specialty Specialty Livestock Dairy Total
State Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps.
Connecticut $283,239 60 $0 0 $293,674 70 $4,515,144 67 $5,092,058 197
Delaware $1,194,263 133 $0 0 $49,182 29 $462,459 8 $1,705,904 170
Maine $410,504 103 $22,515 6 $663,233 203 $6,659,344 164 $7,755,596 476
Maryland $4,333,419 535 $991 3 $1,669,276 413 $5,964,003 154 $11,967,689 1,105
Massachusetts $257,414 115 $3,328 3 $731,190 207 $2,248,868 77 $3,240,800 402
New Hampshire $168,896 46 $0 0 $209,478 81 $2,568,113 65 $2,946,487 192
New Jersey $604,503 90 $27,222 6 $192,065 56 $869,216 28 $1,693,005 180
New York $10,688,902 2,025 $1,434,479 30 $11,091,907 2,437 $111,269,527 2,082 $134,484,815 6,574
Pennsylvania $10,842,082 2,667 $2,114,615 30 $16,229,873 2,829 $59,777,557 1,799 $88,964,126 7,325
Rhode Island $0 4 $0 0 $3,999 8 $9,079 4 $13,078 16
Vermont $581,932 158 $0 1 $996,305 314 $16,140,732 315 $17,718,969 788
Puerto Rico $5,158 1 $212,814 41 $310,302 40 $5,162,720 200 $5,690,994 282
U.S. Virgin Islands $0 0 $90 6 $31,657 21 $0 0 $31,747 27
Total $29,370,311 5,937 $3,816,054 126 $32,472,141 6,708 $215,646,761 4,963 $281,305,266 17,734

* Payments to individual states may not add up to the regional total due to rounding. A single application from one farm or ranch may be counted in multiple categories, affecting totals.


Table 4. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program Payments* to Midwestern States (As of June 29, 2020)
Non-specialty Specialty Livestock Dairy Total
State Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps.
Illinois $148,844,044 22,728 $64,954 9 $67,884,421 5,996 $13,725,459 343 $230,518,878 29,076
Indiana $68,885,626 8,597 $306,171 11 $40,807,382 3,812 $14,798,030 271 $124,797,209 12,691
Iowa $230,807,450 29,264 $6,234 2 $250,985,467 14,550 $31,943,750 704 $513,742,902 44,520
Kansas $55,915,190 10,950 $47,869 18 $180,824,768 14,648 $6,808,147 156 $243,595,974 25,772
Michigan $18,616,415 3,181 $1,509,208 43 $23,022,555 2,056 $54,849,737 692 $97,997,914 5,972
Minnesota $125,091,027 16,329 $248,522 9 $126,697,314 7,846 $57,719,913 1,694 $309,756,776 25,878
Nebraska $136,768,647 15,464 $2,366 1 $201,941,391 11,791 $6,626,502 108 $345,338,906 27,364
North Dakota $40,297,230 5,727 $154,798 13 $54,174,594 4,284 $2,894,698 29 $97,521,320 10,053
Ohio $31,427,812 5,701 $269,504 4 $30,485,456 3,407 $29,333,742 674 $91,516,514 9,786
South Dakota $65,366,122 8,378 $410 9 $178,761,523 9,889 $9,297,021 115 $253,425,075 18,391
Wisconsin $49,803,063 9,221 $326,398 10 $49,643,093 8,199 $224,355,698 4,501 $324,128,251 21,931
Total $971,822,626 135,540 $2,936,433 129 $1,205,227,963 86,478 $452,352,697 9,287 $2,632,339,720 231,434

* Payments to individual states may not add up to the regional total due to rounding. A single application from one farm or ranch may be counted in multiple categories, affecting totals.


Table 5. Coronavirus Food Assistance Program Payments* to Western States (As of June 29, 2020)
Non-specialty Specialty Livestock Dairy Total
State Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps. Payments Apps.
Alaska $0 0 $0 1 $30,862 6 $24,860 1 $55,722 8
Arizona $2,552,120 156 $4,751,920 28 $5,835,861 330 $6,867,674 34 $20,007,576 548
California $3,326,601 454 $43,806,509 1,419 $44,546,039 2,159 $140,655,620 759 $232,334,769 4,791
Colorado $7,237,465 1,192 $45,918 3 $39,187,466 2,628 $15,228,549 78 $61,699,399 3,901
Hawaii $0 0 $575,161 92 $2,588,943 156 $0 1 $3,164,105 249
Idaho $1,946,629 487 $2,482,542 75 $41,818,210 2,501 $45,851,317 257 $92,098,697 3,320
Montana $3,946,784 1,655 $633,461 4 $67,969,316 4,592 $1,677,206 28 $74,226,767 6,279
Nevada $138,983 20 $0 0 $10,420,897 470 $2,868,047 13 $13,427,927 503
New Mexico $846,864 102 $5,335,364 106 $25,466,598 1,535 $16,015,446 64 $47,664,272 1,807
Oregon $322,671 122 $1,709,252 81 $25,262,856 1,554 $13,531,340 126 $40,826,119 1,883
Utah $1,176,305 312 $997,520 14 $21,757,091 1,501 $11,415,162 120 $35,346,077 1,947
Washington $1,264,609 241 $1,326,938 34 $12,809,493 985 $31,788,932 234 $47,189,972 1,494
Wyoming $841,115 241 $0 0 $32,046,127 1,815 $885,236 8 $33,772,478 2,064
America Samoa $0 0 $0 6 $0 0 $0 0 $0 6
Guam $0 0 $0 2 $0 0 $0 0 $0 2
Northern Mariana Islands $0 0 $0 0 $0 5 $0 0 $0 5
Total $23,600,147 4,982 $61,664,584 1,865 $329,739,761 20,237 $286,809,389 1,723 $701,813,880 28,807

* Payments to individual states may not add up to the regional total due to rounding. A single application from one farm or ranch may be counted in multiple categories, affecting totals.


References:

1 “Coronavirus (COVID-19),” June 29, 2020, Google News, https://news.google.com/covid19/map?hl=en-US&gl=US&ceid=US:en.

2 David Yaffe-Bellany and Michael Corkery, “Dumped Milk, Smashed Eggs, Plowed Vegetables: Food Waste of the Pandemic,” April 11, 2020, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/11/business/coronavirus-destroying-food.html.

3 Michael Corkery and David Yaffe-Bellany, “Meat Plant Closures Means Pigs Are Gassed or Shot Instead,” May 14, 2020, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/14/business/coronavirus-farmers-killing-pigs.html.

4 “USDA Announces Coronavirus Food Assistance Program,” April 17, 2020, U.S. Department of Agriculture, https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2020/04/17/usda-announces-coronavirus-food-assistance-program.

5 “Coronavirus Food Assistance Program,” June 29, 2020, U.S. Department Of Agriculture, https://www.farmers.gov/sites/default/files/documents/CFAP-PaymentReportData-06292020.pdf.